research & publications


Results by County (Approx)
  • 21 results found
  • A retrospective analysis of pediatric tuberculosis case finding and child contact management outcomes along the care cascade; under the TB REACH FIKIA project

    PI: Paul Wekesa

    Affiliation: Center For Health Solutions

    Approving ERC: Amref Health Africa ESRC

    Approval Date: 22/02/19

    Duration: 14 months


    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading infectious disease killer worldwide. In children, TB is underdiagnosed and underestimated as bacteriologic confirmation is challenging given the pauci-bacillary nature of the disease in this population. The Center for Health solutions and the National TB program was awarded a fourteen months TB REACH grant which was implemented in nine counties; Nairobi, Machakos, Makueni, Mombasa, Kirinyaga, Garissa, Meru, Siaya, and Kericho and had two arms. The first arm focused on child contact management and the second arm aimed to increase presumptive TB identification in children. Data collection occurred for both arms for monitoring and evaluation purposes and consisted of data that was routinely collected under normal programmatic conditions. We propose a retrospective analysis of the collected data to assess the impact of the FIKIA project on child contact outcomes, presumptive TB notification, and pediatric TB case detection.


    To determine the impact of child contact management and presumptive TB screening on pediatric TB case notification across nine counties in Kenya.

  • "IDEA (Innovative Diagnostic Enhancement Against) TB in HIV+ patients in DREAM clinics in Kenya"

    PI: Ciccacci Fausto

    Affiliation: University of Rome Tor Vergatta

    Approving ERC: Amref Health Africa ESRC

    Approval Date: 6/3/2019

    Duration: 18 months


     TB has still a high prevalence, about 1/3 of world population is infected by

    the Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    In Kenya in 2016 29.000 people died due to TB, 82.7% were HIV+.

    WHO urged that “new health-system strategies and diagnostic tools are critically

    important”, as in 2016 only 63,4% of people with TB worldwide were diagnosed.


    "The general objective of the present study is to improve TB case detection among HIV+


    Specific objectives are:

    1. To evaluate HS-CRR values in TB patients

    2. To compare HS-CRP, LF-LAM test, 4SS with Gene Xpert

    3. To define different algorithms for TB diagnosis based on data collected

    4. To compare different algorithms with classical algorithms and literature data

    5. To support health policy decisions in TB diagnostic protocols definition in HIV+


  • Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Drug Adherence Among People Attending Tabitha Clinic, Kibera.

    PI: Lilian A. Opiyo

    Affiliation:University of Eastern Africa, Baraton

    Approving ERC: University of Eastern Africa, Baraton Research Ethics Committee

    Approval Date: N/A

    Duration:12 months

    Main Objectives:To explore factors associated with tuberculosis drug adherence among patients attending Tabitha Clinic, Kibera.

    Specific Objectives:1. To determine the incidence of TB among people attending Tabitha Clinic.

    2. To assess adherence of drugs to TB for smear positive patients in Tabitha Clinic, Kibera

    3. To explore factors associated with adherence of patients to TB drugs in Tabitha Clinic, Kibera

  • Population Based HIV Bio-behavioral Survey among Refugee Population in Kenya: Multi Country Cross-sectional Study

    PI:  Dr. Evelyn Muthoni Karanja 


    Affiliation: NASCOP 


    Approving ERC: Amref Health Africa ESRC 


    Approval Date: 8/2/2019 


    Duration: 6 months 


    Background: Despite the burden of HIV epidemic, heterogeneity and the potential risk factors within refugee setting in IGAD region, countries refugees are included neither in the Demographic and Health Survey nor ANC/PMTCT sentinel surveillance. As a result, there is no comprehensive and objective evidence on HIV epidemic and associated risk factors to support programmatic interventions in this priority population. The aim of this survey is therefore, to estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (syphilis) among refugees in IGAD member countries. As part of determining the status and challenges of 90-90-90, this survey will also assess coverage of HIV-related services including HTS, knowledge of HIV status, coverage of care & treatment services in the region and estimate HIV incidence and level of viral suppression among adults in refugee setting in IGAD region 


    General Objective 

    To determine HIV prevalence and associated factors of HIV infection among refugee population aged 15-64 in Kenya residing in the camp 

    Specific objectives 

    1.  To assess the knowledge, attitude and behavioral factors associated with HIV infection among refugee populations residing in the camp 

    2. To determine incidence of HIV infections among refugees aged 15-64 years in Kenya residing in the camp 

    3. To determine coverage and uptake of HIV-related services including HCT (HTS), knowledge of HIV status, coverage of care & treatment services among adults in refugee setting in Kenya residing in the camp 

    4. To estimate proportion of viral load suppression among refugees aged 15-64 years living with HIV. residing in the camp 

    5. To determine prevalence of Syphilis among refugee population aged 15-64 years in Kenya residing in the camp 



  • A cross sectional study, of the characteristics of adults with chronic respiratory symptoms attending outpatient department at Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi Kenya; A Multi-centre study

    PI: Dr. Hellen Meme

    Affiliation: KEMRI/CRDR

    Approving ERC: KEMRI SERU

    Approval Date: 14/11/2018

    Duration: 24 Months

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of common chronic respiratory conditions in patients with chronic respiratory symptoms visiting the outpatient departments in Mbagathi Hospital, Kenya.

  • Costing the delivery of Tuberculosis services in Kenya from a health systems perspective .

    PI: Edwin Barasa


    Approving ERC:KEMRI SERU

    Approval Date:25/01/2018

    Duration:5 Years

    Objectives:To estimate the costs of TB services in order to inform the Kenyan NTLD-P and funders, to allocate resources, both to and within the TB control program, in an efficient and equitable way.

  • Expert consultation of works for enhancement of KEMRI-CRDR tuberculosis laboratory from biosafety level 2 to biosafety level 3

    PI: Martha Njoroge 


    Affiliation: KEMRI-CRDR 


    Approving ERC: KEMRI SERU 


    Approval Date: February 23, 2018 


    Duration: 2 years 



    To seek expert consultation of works for enhancement of KEMRI-CRDR tuberculosis laboratory from bio-safety level 2 to bio-safety level 3.   

  • Lung Health policy analysis and introduction of virtual implementation through operational modeling in polocy uptake in Kenya

    PI: Brenda Mungai 


    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine  


    Approving ERC: KEMRI SERU 


    Approval Date: June 20, 2018 


    Duration:6 months 



    To undertake a lung health policy analysis to understand process, factors and actors that influence policy formulation and implementation in lung health 



  • The effects of networking on TB Test volumes received by Gene Xpert sites. The case of green house clinic in Mathare

    PI: Dr. Stephen Wanjala 


    Affiliation: University of Nairobi 


    Approving ERC: KEMRI SERU 


    Approval Date: November 06, 2017 


    Duration: 18 months 



    To determine the effect of facility networking on volumes of samples sent from peripheral facilities to a central Gene Xpert site 


  • Successes and Challenges in an Integrated Tuberculosis/HIV Clinic in a Rural, Resource-Limited Setting: Experiences from Kericho, Kenya


    KDH is located in Kericho among the tea fields and plantations of Kenya's southern Rift Valley Province 260 kilometers northwest of Nairobi. As a Ministry of Health (MoH) facility under the Ministry of Medical Services, KDH provides services to a rural, largely uninsured population, representative of the national statistic indicating that 46% of the population lives below the poverty line

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  • Integrating Tuberculosis and HIV Services in rural Kenya: uptake and outcomes


    An estimated 35.3 million persons worldwide were living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2012, while 8.6 million people developed tuberculosis (TB), the majority of them in sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya is one of the world’s 22 high TB burden2 and high HIV burden countries.

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  • Community Perceptions of Community Health Workers (CHWs) and Their Roles in Management for HIV, Tuberculosis and Hypertension in Western Kenya.

    Given shortages of health care providers and a rise in the number of people living with both communicable and non-communicable diseases, Community Health Workers (CHWs) are increasingly incorporated into health care programs. We sought to explore community perceptions of CHWs including perceptions of their roles in chronic disease management as part of the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Program (AMPATH) in western Kenya. In depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted between July 2012 and August 2013. Study participants were purposively sampled from three AMPATH sites: Chulaimbo, Teso and Turbo, and included patients within the AMPATH program receiving HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and hypertension (HTN) care, as well as caregivers of children with HIV, community leaders, and health care workers. Participants were asked to describe their perceptions of AMPATH CHWs, including identifying the various roles they play in engagement in care for chronic diseases including HIV, TB and HTN.

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  • Impact Of Health Facility And Community Linkages In Tb Contact Tracing


    WHO and Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends infection control to reduce the risk of Tuberculosis (TB) transmission. In Kirogo Chest Clinic there was an identified gap of tracing contact of smear positive TB client who were not identified early hence presenting later with active TB. Earlier in 2012 and 2013, health workers requested TB clients to tell their contacts to come to the clinic or bring them along in their next clinic. This was a challenge as most of the contacts never came. To address this, the staff held a multidisciplinary team meeting, discussed the issue and engaged the Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) for identification and tracking at community level. They liaised with the Public Health Officer who linked the chest clinic with CHVs working in the Community Units.

  • Factors associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 incidence in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seronegative Kenyan men and women reporting high-risk sexual behavior.


    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an important cause of genital ulcers and can increase HIV-1 transmission risk. Our objective was to determine the incidence and correlates of HSV-2 infection in HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan men reporting high-risk sexual behaviour, compared to high-risk HIV-1-seronegative women in the same community.

    Methods Cohort participants were screened for prevalent HIV-1 infection. HIV-1-uninfected participants had regularly scheduled follow-up visits, with HIV counseling and testing and collection of demographic and behavioral data. Archived blood samples were tested for HSV-2.


    HSV-2 prevalence was 22.0% in men and 50.8% in women (p<0.001). HSV-2 incidence in men was 9.0 per 100 person-years, and was associated with incident HIV-1 infection (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 3.9, 95% CI 1.3–12.4). Use of soap for genital washing was protective (aIRR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.8). Receptive anal intercourse had a borderline association with HSV-2 acquisition in men (aIRR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–4.1, p=0.057), and weakened the association with incident HIV-1. Among women, HSV-2 incidence was 22.1 per 100 person-years (p < 0.001 compared to incidence in men), and was associated with incident HIV-1 infection (aIRR 8.9, 95% CI 3.6–21.8) and vaginal washing with soap (aIRR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.4).


    HSV-2 incidence in these men and women is among the highest reported, and is associated with HIV-1 acquisition. While vaginal washing with soap may increase HSV-2 risk in women, genital hygiene may be protective in men.

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  • Innovative Practices in the Fight against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria

    The African continent has immense depth of culture, warmth and a very special heartbeat
    1 that makes it an unmatched home to approximately 973 million people . However, despite
    its tremendous potential and resources, the continent carries a heavy disease morbidity
    and mortality burden mostly impacted by Human Immune deficiency virus (HIV),
    Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria.
    Globally, there are an estimated 33 million people living with HIV and 2 million people died
    due to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 2007. Africa bears a
    disproportionate share of the global burden of HIV. Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 67% of all
    people living with HIV and Southern Africa alone accounts for 35% of HIV infections and
    38% of AIDS deaths in 2007. An estimated 370,000 children younger than 15 years were
    infected with HIV in 2007, and almost 90% live in sub-Saharan Africa. Nearly 12 million
    2 children under age 18 have lost one or both parents to HIV within the region .
    WHO estimates that 9.27 million new cases of TB occurred in 2007. Among the 15 countries
    with the highest TB incidence rates, 13 are in Africa, a phenomenon linked to high rates of
    HIV co-infection. In 2007, as in previous years, the African Region accounted for 79% of HIV-
    3 positive TB cases .
    Of the estimated 247 million episodes of malaria in 2006, 86% were in the African region.
    Eighty percent (80%) of the cases recorded in Africa were in 13 countries, and over half were
    in Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, United Republic of Tanzania and
    Kenya. Of the estimated 881 000 malaria deaths globally in 2006, 91% were in Africa and
    4 85% were children under 5 years of age .

  • Information Systems for Patient Follow-Up and Chronic Management of HIV and Tuberculosis

    The scale-up of treatment for HIV and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in developing countries requires a long-term relationship with the patient, accurate and accessible records of each patient’s history, and methods to track his/her progress. Recent studies have shown up to 24% loss to follow-up of HIV patients in Africa during treatment and many patients not being started on treatment at all. Some programs for prevention of maternal–child transmission have more than 80% loss to follow-up of babies born to HIV-positive mothers. These patients are at great risk of dying or developing drug resistance if their antiretroviral therapy is interrupted. Similar problems have been found in the scale-up of MDR-TB treatment.

  • Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health

    The SEARCH study is a cluster randomized community trial of 32 communities each with approximately 10,000 residents. Community health campaigns will be conducted in all study communities and will offer HIV testing and multi-disease prevention and treatment services. The intervention is antiretroviral therapy (ART), independent of CD4 cell count, delivered in a streamlined approach for all HIV infected adults and children. Components of streamlined care include ongoing HIV combination prevention strategies including male circumcision. Control communities ART treatment will follow country guidelines.
    HIV incidence will be measured using an efficient community cohort design (ECCO) comprised of three key elements: A) baseline household community level census, B) community health campaigns (CHC) incorporating HIV testing that use unique identifiers to link individuals between successive waves of the intervention, and C) tracking and evaluation of individuals who do not participate in CHCs.